Monday, May 25, 2020

Bentham Opposes ‘Three Strikes And You’Re Out’ Laws. Pain

Bentham opposes ‘Three Strikes and You’re Out’ laws. Pain and pleasure dictate what we should do and what is right and wrong. It is about maximizing the pleasure and minimizing the pain. ‘Three Strikes and You’re Out’ laws does not bring pleasure to society when a person goes to jail for life for stealing a pizza or a small amount of marijuana. These acts are wrong, but they are not evil. The value of pain and pleasure is based on the intensity, the duration, the certainty or uncertainty, and its nearness or remoteness. For instance, the pain of a stolen pizza and a murder, the intensity of the pain is not the same, nor does it last as long (hours as oppose to a lifetime). More so, â€Å"utility is meant the property of something whereby it†¦show more content†¦Of course, the man hides his valuables and the burglar dies. If this situation is not a form of excessive punishment, then ‘Three Strikes and You’re Out’ is not excessive. Even so, he would say â€Å"fallibility, logically, has more to do with whether we should punish at all, or how harsh our harsher punishment should be, than whether our punishment should be scaled according to the gravity of the crime† (Lawrence, 76). In addition, a very important factor would notice. In his Doomsday machine example, he made a point to inform us that the population would know about the machine and what it does. Alexander would say, â€Å"Once the [criminal] have been warned (the notice principle), and because they have no right to [commit the crime] in the first place (the wrongful act principle), they have no right to demand proportional response if that is more costly in terms of other values† (Lawrence, 79). In the same scenario, he would not consider the laws unfair if there is prior notice and if it only reacts to wrongful acts. The law stipulates that anyone convicted of two prior felonies would get 25 to life in prison for any cr ime. First, the population is notified. Second, it has to do with wrongful acts. He violated rights prior to triggering the life sentence. Basically, he took a chance. In the circumstance where a person believes the wrongful act is right, a crime of passion, or mentally ill, Alexander would say a fewShow MoreRelatedOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesunderstanding the diverse nature of organization theory Mapping some aspects of organization theory’s diversity Positivist protagonists: the truth is out there, and we can objectively know it Philosophical disputes around the role of the subjective in science Epistemological and ontolological disputes: how can we ever know the ‘truth’ and is there an ‘out there’? A few words of warning about the term postmodernism Overview of the structure and rationale of the book Chapter summaries Chapter 2: Modernist

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Overview of the Book Stigma by Erving Goffman

Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity is a book written by sociologist  Erving Goffman in 1963 about the idea of stigma and what it is like to be a stigmatized person. It is a look into the world of people considered abnormal by society. Stigmatized people are those that do not have full social acceptance and are constantly striving to adjust their social identities: physically deformed people, mental patients, drug addicts, prostitutes, etc. Goffman relies extensively on autobiographies and case studies to analyze stigmatized persons’ feelings about themselves and their relationships to â€Å"normal† people. He looks at the variety of strategies that stigmatized individuals use to deal with the rejection of others and the complex images of themselves that they project to others. Three Types of Stigma In the first chapter of the book, Goffman identifies three types of stigma: stigma of character traits, physical stigma, and stigma of group identity. Stigma of character traits are: â€Å"...blemishes of individual character perceived as weak will, domineering, or unnatural passions, treacherous and rigid beliefs, and dishonesty, these being inferred from a known record of, for example, mental disorder, imprisonment, addiction, alcoholism, homosexuality, unemployment, suicidal attempts, and radical political behavior.† Physical stigma refers to physical deformities of the body, while stigma of group identity is a stigma that comes from being of a particular race, nation, religion, etc. These stigmas are transmitted through lineages and contaminate all members of a family. What all of these types of stigma have in common is that they each have the same sociological features: â€Å" individual who might have been received easily in normal social intercourse possesses a trait that can obtrude itself upon attention and turn those of us whom he meets away from him, breaking the claim that his other attributes have on us.† When Goffman refers to â€Å"us,† he is referring to the non-stigmatized, which he calls the â€Å"normals.† Stigma Responses Goffman discusses a number of responses that stigmatized people can take. For example, they could undergo plastic surgery, however, they still risk being exposed as someone who was formerly stigmatized. They can also make special efforts to compensate for their stigma, such as drawing attention to another area of the body or to an impressive skill. They can also use their stigma as an excuse for their lack of success, they can see it as a learning experience, or they can use it to criticize â€Å"normals.† Hiding, however, can lead to further isolation, depression, and anxiety and when they do go out in public, they can, in turn, feel more self-conscious and afraid to display anger or other negative emotions. Stigmatized individuals can also turn to other stigmatized people or sympathetic others for support and coping. They can form or join self-help groups, clubs, national associations, or other groups to feel a sense of belonging. They might also produce their own conferences or magazines to raise their morale. Stigma Symbols In chapter two of the book,  Goffman discusses the role of â€Å"stigma symbols.† Symbols are a part of information control; they are used to understand others. For example, a wedding ring is a symbol that shows others that someone is married. Stigma symbols are similar. Skin color is a stigma symbol, as is a hearing aid, cane, shaved head, or wheelchair. Stigmatized people often use symbols as â€Å"disidentifiers† in order to try to pass as a â€Å"normal.† For instance, if an illiterate person is wearing ‘intellectual’ glasses, they might be trying to pass as a literate person; or, a homosexual person who tells ‘queer jokes’ might be trying to pass as a heterosexual person. These covering attempts, however, can also be problematic. If a stigmatized person tries to cover their stigma or pass as a â€Å"normal,† they have to avoid close relationships, and passing can often lead to self-contempt. They also need to constantly be alert and always checking their houses or bodies for signs of stigmatization. Rules for Handling Normals In chapter three of this book, Goffman discusses the rules that stigmatized people follow when handling â€Å"normals.† One must assume that â€Å"normals† are ignorant rather than malicious.No response is needed to snubs or insults, and the stigmatized should either ignore or patiently refute the offense and views behind it.The stigmatized should try to help reduce the tension by breaking the ice and using humor or even self-mockery.The stigmatized should treat â€Å"normals† as if they are honorary wise.The stigmatized should follow disclosure etiquette by using disability as a topic for serious conversation, for example.The stigmatized should use tactful pauses during conversations to allow recovery from shock over something that was said.The stigmatized should allow intrusive questions and agree to be helped.The stigmatized should see oneself as â€Å"normal† in order to put â€Å"normals† at easy. Deviance In the final two chapters of the book, Goffman discusses the underlying social functions of stigmatization, such as social control,  as well as the implications that stigma has for theories of deviance. For instance, stigma and deviance can be functional and acceptable in society if it is within limits and boundaries.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Hotel Aborilities In Pessac, France - 1331 Words

There are many reasons to visit the gorgeous commune of Pessac, France. Here, one can admire the grand architecture of chateaus and indulge in the gourmet scene. Experience fantastic French cuisine here. When you head to the second-largest suburb of Bordeaux though, wine reigns supreme. We have compiled the top 10 Airbnb vacation rental accommodations in Pessac, France to help you experience this region at its optimum. Consider booking a room today to help you plan for your trip to France. Consider staying at this warm and homely house. It has a single room with two beds to accommodate up to four guests. This space is suitable for two couples, a family with children, or a group of friends. Quiet and close to the downtown area, this house†¦show more content†¦This Airbnb vacation rental offers a single bedroom that can accommodate up to two guests. This location is close to the center of Pessac and Mà ©rignac, and is ideal if you are planning a trip to Bordeaux. Nearby, you can taste wines at the beautiful and magnificent Chà ¢teau La Mission Haut-Brion, where one can get a great winery experience. How about a stay in this small, pleasant house in Pessac? It offers a bedroom with a double bed that is ideal for a couple. Also on offer is a fully-equipped kitchenette, with dishes, plates, a microwave, and a refrigerator that guests can utilize when staying at this house. In the immediate vicinity of this Airbnb vacation rental is Tram B. It can easily take you directly to the Bordeaux center and the Alouette-France SNCF train station. This Airbnb listing is located in a quiet, residential area. Stay in this house and you’ll be close to the university campus in Pessac. This private room is adjacent to the living room and can accommodate up to two guests. Guests here can also access common areas like the kitchen, the living room, and the dining room, along with the garden at this property. There are many restaurants near this property. Consider eating at Chez Le Boulanger. Here, you will get choices aplenty between breads and baguettes, with desserts and good quality food to eat on the spot or to take away. If you want to try out the best crepes in the area, visit Le Cafà © Bleu. Here, you will get crepes at good value

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Enchanted Places by Christopher Robin Milne free essay sample

Critical review of autobiography of life as son of A.A. Milne inspiration for boy who owned Winnie the Pooh in his fathers childrens books. Christopher Robin Milne died on April 20, 1996. He was the original Christopher Robin who owned the stuffed bear called Winnie-the-Pooh and his father A. A. Milne wrote some of the worlds most famous childrens books about his son and his toy animals. The obituaries for Christopher Milne stressed the fact that the attention this brought him from Pooh fans didnt always sit well with the real Christopher Robin (Transition 87). But in his autobiography, The Enchanted Places, which deals mainly with his childhood, Milne did not express any dislike for the books. The main problem that he had with his fame was that it was never really his own fame. The question that bothered him the most about the books was whether they had really been written for him, as his father sometimes claimed, or whether he was just the source of an idea that his father could use for his own purposes. We will write a custom essay sample on The Enchanted Places by Christopher Robin Milne or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In the book Milne tries to understand why it always seemed to him that his father had only pretended to write the books for him.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Great Gatsby And Fitzgerald Dream Essays - The Great Gatsby

Great Gatsby And Fitzgerald Dream The Great Gatsby, a novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald, is set in 1922 in the New York City area. It is about the American Dream and those who attempt to reach its illusionary goals. Jay Gatsby acquires the wealth and the power of his dream but not the happiness. We have to wonder why F. Scott Fitzgerald would write such a book. Was it to reflect the society of the 1920's: where either you had money and the dream, or you were poor and lived amongst the ashes. You could have the chance of being like the phoenix and rising out of the ashes like the character Jay. This dream is different for different people. In The Great Gatsby, for Jay, the dream is that through wealth and power one can acquire happiness. Jay Gatsby, the central figure of the story is one character who longs for the past. Surprisingly, he devotes most of his adult life trying to recapture it, finally dying in its pursuit. In the past, Jay had a love affair with the affluent Daisy Buchannan. Knowing he could not marry her because of her social status, he leaves her to achive a comparable social status. Once he acquires this status, he moves near Daisy, and throws elaborate parties hoping, by chance, she might show up at one of them. When Daisy doesn't show up at the parties, Jay asks around to see if anyone knows her. Soon he meets Nick Carraway, a cousin of Daisy's, who agrees to arrange a meeting. Gatsby's personal dream symbolizes the larger American Dream which is available to everyone , the wealth, the status and the happiness. Tom Buchannan, Daisy's husband, realizes his world is falling apart when he is driving to New York with Nick and Jordan Baker the female golf pro. His wife Daisy, is driving with Jay in her car. Tom stops to get gas and Tom's mistress, Myrtle sees him. With jealous eyes she watches them leave thinking Jordan is Tom's wife. On the way back from New York, Daisy is driving Tom's car, Myrtle sees the car and thinks that it's Tom and she runs out in front of it. Daisy doesn't realize the woman she hit was Tom's mistress, as she continues to drive away in shock. Later in the story at the Plaza Hotel, Jay still believes Daisy loves him. He is so convinced of this that he takes the blame for Myrtle's death. Jay cannot accept that the past is gone. He is sure he can capture his dream with all his wealth. He believes he acted for a good beyond his personal interest and that should give him success. Gatsby doesn't rest until his American Dream is finally fulfilled. However, it never comes about and he ends up paying the ultimate price for it. Jay found his wealth and his power but not his ultimate happiness. The idea that money can buy everything is far off, no matter what you have you can never buy true friends or total happiness. The American Dream still holds true today. But one thing never changes: everyone desires something in life and everyone strives to get it, but as we all know, " you can't always get what you want". Gatsby is a prime example. I highly recommend this book as a great read. Quote " You can't always get what you want"

Monday, March 9, 2020

ITCs cigarette Business Essay Example

ITCs cigarette Business Essay Example ITCs cigarette Business Essay ITCs cigarette Business Essay High incidence of taxation continuously has been a deterrent to ITCs cigarette Business. Taxes amount to over 80% of the value added in the cigarette industry, hence making cigarettes increasingly unaffordable to the Indian tobacco consumer. There are about 200 million tobacco consumers in India, and of them, fewer than 14% can afford cigarettes, although cigarettes contributes 90% of total Central and State revenues generated from tobacco sector. Non-cigarette forms of tobacco consumption, constituting nearly 85% of tobacco consumption in the country, contribute barely 10% of Government revenues because of the difficulty of tax collection and the low tax yields that characterize this largely unorganized sector. There has been a prolonged punitive and discriminatory taxation regime at Central and State levels have made cigarettes unaffordable to the majority of tobacco consumers. Also, Non-cigarette forms of tobacco products are largely produced in the unorganized sector characterized by lower rates of tax and ineffective enforcement. As a result, there is a growing migration to lower value forms of tobacco consumption. Just to illustrate, in 2003, the effective excise duty on most tobacco products other than cigarettes is equivalent to about 12% of the net value of the product whereas on cigarettes this component is as high as 140%. Moreover in 2003, VAT was introduced on cigarettes already subject to a plethora of taxes. The export prospects were affected by the uncertainty and diminished market presence caused by the crop holidays in Andhra Pradesh. As a result, the export attractiveness of Indian tobaccos is caught up in a vicious cycle to the growing detriment of the tobacco farmers. Also, small base of domestic cigarette consumption discourages investment in RD and quality enhancement of tobacco varieties thereby sub-optimizing the export potential of tobacco. There was also threat from contraband trade of cigarettes aided with loopholes in the regulatory framework and lack of effective enforcement. In 2004-05, severe restrictions were imposed on the cigarettes industry with respect to advertisement, sale and consumption of tobacco products with the implementation of the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade, Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 (COTPA). All these in totality made cigarette business less profitable and more challenging. As a result, ITC started diversifying into multiple businesses. While exploring new opportunities, for long term growth, ITC depended on its multiple strengths synergies that it could bring about from its existing businesses. We discuss few of such businesses in detail in the following sections. The mill at Bhadrachalam produces 240,000 TPY of papers and boards and has three board machines and two smaller paper machines. The mill produces paperboards for the packaging and graphics segments with a product range that includes Cyber XLPac (folding box boards), Pearl/Saphire Graphik (solid bleached boards) high value boards and the Ecoviron range of recycled boards. It also makes liquid packaging boards for Tetrapak in India. One of the big innovations at this mill has been the commissioning of an Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) fibre line. This is a state-of-the-art line which meets the effluent norms set by the Ministry of Environment and Forests of the Government of India and thus ties in with the Environment theme in its Triple Bottomline. The Tribeni Tissues unit was initially part of the Wiggins Teape Company, UK from 1961 to 1988. In 1992, it merged with ITC Ltd. The mill and its paper machines were refurbished with the latest technology. It has a capacity of 33,000 TPY with a product range that includes cigarette tissues, fine papers, packaging papers and specialties. The range from papers produced is quite diverse including Cigarette Tissues and Components, Laminating Base Tissue, Acid-Free and Anti-Rust Tissues, Low Grammage Printing Papers, Di cor Papers to Insulation Grade and Medical Grade Papers. The unit is ISO 9001:2000 version and ISO 14001 accredited. ITC has another paperboard facility at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu which was acquired from BILT Industrial Packaging Company in 2004. This mill manufactures Coated Duplex boards Greyback and Whiteback made with 100% recycled materials and has a single board machine with 90,000 TPY of capacity. The products are continuously monitored for quality using a Siemens DCS system and Measurex QCS system. Quality as in other ITC units is a big focus and the mill has continuously demonstrated quality having achieved ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 certifications. The delivery of rolls and sheets is ensured by a modern Finishing House with short turnaround times. Eco Naturo and Eco Naturo-HS are the two grades of Coated Duplex Grey Back board made from this unit. For almost the first time in India, a customer has the option to buy a higher bulk and stiffness of Greyback Board (GD2 grade) for his carton requirements. The unit at Bollarum near Hyderabad produces 5000 TPY of Cast Coated Papers and Boards, 10,000 TPY of Poly Extrusion coated boards and 10000 TPY of C2S art boards and Ivory cards. It is the market leader in South Asia in carton boards and ranks second in turnover within the Indian paper industry. Most leading Fast Moving Consumer Goods Brands in India use paperboard manufactured at this location. Exports constitute about 20% of sales and cater to international markets in Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Iran, Australia, UAE, Turkey, China, Singapore, UK, Greece, Germany and USA. The unit is ISO 9001:2000 series accredited.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Casino taxes Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Casino taxes - Essay Example Casino taxes The basic casino gaming tax laws which are to be followed by all states including Nevada and New Jersey are the following: Winnings from all types of gambling are taxable and should be declared as income on the tax return, while the losses from gambling are to be deducted as an itemized deduction for the spare time players, restricted to the amount of winnings declared. Players who are professional gamblers must hold a file as self-employed business using Schedule C. Schedule C is an Internal Revenue Service form used to file profits and losses by a company (What is Schedule C, 2011). The worth of comps received is considered as gaming winnings and are included in the total winnings. Though, the person is allowed to deduct the losses to counterbalance the income from the comps. The winnings and losses are reported only in the year of occurrence. Excessive losses are not to be carried forward or backward to balance winnings in other years. Married couples who file a joint return shou ld combine their winnings losses, and account only one figure for both. According to the instructions issued by IRS, lumping is unacceptable. Lumping is either reporting only one final win figure and no losses, or reporting nothing if the net value from gambling is a negative. A person must report total of the winning sessions individually from the total of the losing sessions. The Internal Revenue Service requires an accurate record to be maintained to substantiate ones wins and losses. The records must contain at least the following information: the date and type of person’s particular wager; the name of the gaming organization or establishment with its location and address; the names of the other people, if any, present with the player; the amount the person won or lost. A report containing wagering tickets or receipts; W-2Gs; credit card records such as cash advances; cancelled checks; receipts provided by the gambling establishment and bank withdrawals is also require by the IRS to substantiate a person’s diary. A person does not submit these records with return but will be needed if the person is to be audited. As casinos and card rooms are subjected to the money-laundering rules therefore they must report cumulative cash transactions of ten thousand dollars or more in one day to the IRS. They can also make out such reports for amounts as low as two thousand dollars if they are doubtful and apprehensive. Once a casino has a person’s SSN and ID on record, they may issue these Cash Transaction Reports (CTRs) without his/her knowledge. Though the basic rules of casino gaming taxes are almost the same for every state but there are some differences as well. The revenues generated from the taxes in Nevada are used by the local governments and state general fund. In New Jersey the casino revenues provide financial assistance to the disabled and elderly. (State Tax Systems: recreational gambling, 2010) Casino gaming taxes in Nevada: A licens e fee is imposed at both local and state level. The range of County license fees is from $10 to $50 per month, whereas, the range of State monthly license fees is from 3% to 6.25% of the gross revenues. Range of Annual state license fees is from $100 to $6,000 for each year depending on size of the organization. Annually, an additional $80 fee is imposed on every slot machine for an unrestricted state license. Quarterly fee ranges from $45 to $225 plus 90 per machine for a restricted state licence fee (Rafool, 2004). Annually, $ 250 tax is imposed each slot machine. Casino entertainment tax equals to 10% of amounts